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Saturday, 06 August 2011 02:53

Alkaline Materials: Physical & Chemical Hazards

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Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division / Subsidiary Risks

AMMONIA
7664-41-7

The gas is lighter than air • It is difficult to ignite • Spilled liquid has very low temperature and evaporates quickly

Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with mercury, silver and gold oxides • The substance is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive to eg, aluminum and zinc • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, halogens and interhalogens • Attacks copper, aluminum, zinc, and their alloys • Dissolves in water evolving heat

2.3/ 8

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
12125-02-9

The substance decomposes on heating or on burning, producing toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrogen chloride) • The solution in water is a weak acid • Reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts with highly concentrated acids to form hydrogen chloride and with strong bases to form ammonia • Reacts with silver salts to form compounds that are sensitive to mechanical shock • Attacks copper and its compounds

AMMONIUM FLUORIDE
12125-01-8

6.1

AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE
1336-21-6

8

AMMONIUM NITRATE
6484-52-2

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion • The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials

5.1

CALCIUM
7440-70-2

4.3

CALCIUM CARBIDE
75-20-7

The substance decomposes violently on contact with water producing acetylene gas, causing fire and explosion hazard

4.3

CALCIUM CHLORATE
10137-74-3

5.1

CALCIUM HYDRIDE
7789-78-8

4.3

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE
1305-62-0

The substance decomposes on heating producing calcium oxide • The substance is a medium strong base

8

CALCIUM NITRATE
10124-37-5

5.1

CALCIUM OXIDE
1305-78-8

The solution in water is a medium strong base • Reacts violently with strong acids, water, chlorine or boron trifluoride • Reacts with water generating sufficient heat to ignite combustible materials

8

CARBONIC ACID, CALCIUM SALT
471-34-1

The substance decomposes on heating to high temperature producing carbon dioxide • Reacts with acids causing carbon dioxide release

CHLORIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
7775-09-9

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion • The substance decomposes on heating above 300°C or on burning producing oxygen, which increases fire hazard, and toxic fumes (chlorine) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials, causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts with strong acids giving off carbon dioxide • Reacts with organic contaminants to form shock-sensitive mixtures • Attacks zinc and steel

5.1

LITHIUM
7439-93-2

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion • The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air when finely dispersed • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, acids and many compounds (hydrocarbons, halogens and halons) causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts violently with water, forming highly flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive fumes of lithium hydroxide

4.3

LITHIUM CARBONATE
554-13-2

The substance decomposes on heating producing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide • The solution in water is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive to aluminium and zinc • violently with strong acid (HCl)Reacts violently with fluorine • Attacks aluminum and zinc

LITHIUM CHLORIDE
7447-41-8

The solution in water is corrosive to metals

LITHIUM HYDRIDE
7580-67-8

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air • The substance decomposes exothermically on heating to about 500°C or in contact with moisture or acids, producing flammable gas • Reacts violently with strong oxidants • Reacts with water to form lithium hydroxide which is very caustic, and flammable hydrogen gas • Reacts with lower alcohols, carboxylic acids, chlorine and ammonia at 400°C to liberate hydrogen gas • Lithium hydride powder and liquid oxygen are detonable explosives

4.3

LITHIUM HYDROXIDE
1310-65-2

The solution in water is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive to aluminium and zinc

LITHIUM HYDROXIDE MONOHYDRATE
1310-66-3

The solution in water is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive to aluminium and zinc

8

PERCHLORIC ACID, POTASSIUM SALT
7778-74-7

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (chlorine, chloroxides) • Reacts violently with metal powders, combustible, organic or other oxidizable materials causing fire and explosion hazard • When heated to decomposition toxic fumes of chloride, potassium- and chloroxide are formed

POTASSIUM
7440-09-7

4.3

POTASSIUM BROMATE
7758-01-2

5.1

POTASSIUM CHLORATE
3811-04-9

The substance decomposes on warming, on heating, on burning, on contact with organic substances, combustible agents, metal powders, sulfuric acid, ammonium containing substances, alcohols, producing chlorine dioxide, chlorine and oxygen, causing fire and explosion hazard • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxidants

5.1

POTASSIUM FLUORIDE
7789-23-3

6.1

POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE
1310-58-3

The substance is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive in moist air toward metals such as zinc, aluminum, tin and lead forming a combustible/explosive gas (hydrogen) • Rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide and water from air • Contact with moisture or water will generate heat

8

POTASSIUM NITRATE
7757-79-1

The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing nitrogen oxides, oxygen, which increases fire hazard • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials

5.1

POTASSIUM NITRITE
7758-09-0

May explode on heating above 530°C • The substance decomposes on contact with even weak acids producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials causing fire and explosion hazard

5.1

POTASSIUM OXIDE
12136-45-7

The substance decomposes on contact with water producing potassium hydroxide • The solution in water is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive • Attacks many metals in presence of water

SODIUM
7440-23-5

4.3

SODIUM BROMATE
7789-38-0

5.1

SODIUM CARBONATE
497-19-8

SODIUM CHLORITE
7758-19-2

5.1

SODIUM HYDROXIDE
1310-73-2

The substance is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive in moist air to metals like zinc, aluminum, tin and lead forming a combustible/explosive gas (hydrogen) • Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber or coatings • Rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide and water from air • Contact with moisture or water may generate heat

8

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
7681-52-9

8

SODIUM METHYLATE
124-41-4

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion • The substance decomposes on contact with water producing methanol, which increases fire hazard • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants • The substance is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive • Attacks many metals in presence of water

4.2/ 8

SODIUM NITRATE
7631-99-4

The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing nitrogen oxides and oxygen, which increases fire hazard • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials, causing fire and explosion hazard

SODIUM NITRITE
7632-00-0

May explode on heating above 530°C • The substance decomposes on contact with even weak acids producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials causing fire and explosion hazard

5.1

SODIUM PEROXIDE
1313-60-6

5.1

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance.

 

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Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides