" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1995. Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 22nd ed. Cincinnati: OH: ACGIH.
Andjelkovich, D, JD Taulbee, and MJ Symons. 1976. Mortality experience in a cohort of rubber workers, 1964–1973. J Occup Med 18:386–394.
Andjelkovich, D, H Abdelghany, RM Mathew, and S Blum. 1988. Lung cancer case-control study in a rubber manufacturing plant. Am J Ind Med 14:559–574.
Arp, EW, PH Wolf, and H Checkoway. 1983. Lymphocytic leukemia and exposures to benzene and other solvents in the rubber industry. J Occup Med 25:598–602.
Bernardinelli, L, RD Marco, and C Tinelli. 1987. Cancer mortality in an Italian rubber factory. Br J Ind Med 44:187–191.
Blum, S, EW Arp, AH Smith, and HA Tyroler. 1979. Stomach cancer among rubber workers: An epidemiologic investigation. In Dusts and Disease. Park Forest, IL: SOEH, Pathotox Publishers.
Checkoway, H, AH Smith, AJ McMichael, FS Jones, RR Monson, and HA Tyroler. 1981. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the U.S. tire industry. Br J Ind Med 38:240–246.
Checkoway, H, T Wilcosky, P Wolf, and H Tyroler. 1984. An evaluation of the associations of leukemia and rubber industry solvent exposures. Am J Ind Med 5:239–249.
Delzell, E and RR Monson. 1981a. Mortality among rubber workers. III. Cause-specific mortality 1940–1978. J Occup Med 23:677–684.
—. 1981b. Mortality among rubber workers. IV. General mortality patterns. J Occup Med 23:850–856.
Delzell, E, D Andjelkovich, and HA Tyroler. 1982. A case-control study of employment experience and lung cancer among rubber workers. Am J Ind Med 3:393–404.
Delzell, E, N Sathiakumar, M Hovinga, M Macaluso, J Julian, R Larson, P Cole, and DCF Muir. 1996. A follow-up study of synthetic rubber workers. Toxicology 113:182–189.
Fajen, J, RA Lunsford, and DR Roberts. 1993. Industrial exposure to 1,3-butadiene in monomer, polymer and end-user industries. In Butadiene and Styrene: Assessment of Health Hazards, edited by M Sorsa, K Peltonen, H Vainio and K Hemminki. Lyon: IARC Scientific Publications.
Fine, LJ and JM Peters. 1976a. Respiratory morbidity in rubber workers. I. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disease in curing workers. Arch Environ Health 31:5–9.
—. 1976b. Respiratory morbidity in rubber workers. II. Pulmonary function in curing workers. Arch Environ Health 31:10–14.
—. 1976c. Studies of respiratory morbidity in rubber workers. III. Respiratory morbidity in processing workers. Arch Environ Health 31:136–140.
Fine, LJ, JM Peters, WA Burgess, and LJ DiBerardinis. 1976. Studies of respiratory morbidity in rubber workers. IV. Respiratory morbidity in talc workers. Arch Environ Health 31:195–200.
Fox, AJ and PF Collier. 1976. A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: Analysis of deaths occurring in 1972–74. Br J Ind Med 33:249–264.
Fox, AJ, DC Lindars, and R Owen. 1974. A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: Results of a five-year analysis, 1967–71. Br J Ind Med 31:140–151.
Gamble, JF and R Spirtas. 1976. Job classification and utilization of complete work histories in occupational epidemiology. J Occup Med 18:399–404.
Goldsmith, D, AH Smith, and AJ McMichael. 1980. A case-control study of prostate cancer within a cohort of rubber and tire workers. J Occup Med 22:533–541.
Granata, KP and WS Marras. 1993. An EMG-assisted model of loads on the lumbar spine during asymmetric trunk extensions. J Biomech 26:1429–1438.
Greek, BF. 1991. Rubber demand is expected to grow after 1991. C & EN (13 May): 37-54.
Gustavsson, P, C Hogstedt, and B Holmberg. 1986. Mortality and incidence of cancer among Swedish rubber workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 12:538–544.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1992. 1,3-Butadiene. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Occupational Exposures to Mists and Vapours from Strong Inorganic Acids and Other Industrial Chemicals. Lyon: IARC.
International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers. 1994. Worldwide Rubber Statistics. Houston, TX: International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers.
Kilpikari, I. 1982. Mortality among male rubber workers in Finland. Arch Environ Health 37:295–299.
Kilpikari, I, E Pukkala, M Lehtonen, and M Hakama. 1982. Cancer incidence among Finnish rubber workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 51:65–71.
Lednar, WM, HA Tyroler, AJ McMichael, and CM Shy. 1977. The occupational determinants of chronic disabling pulmonary disease in rubber workers. J Occup Med 19:263–268.
Marras, WS and CM Sommerich. 1991. A three dimensional motion model of loads on the lumbar spine, Part I: Model structure. Hum Factors 33:123–137.
Marras, WS, SA Lavender, S Leurgans, S Rajulu, WG Allread, F Fathallah, and SA Ferguson. 1993. The role of dynamic three dimensional trunk motion in occupationally-related low back disorders: The effects of workplace factors, trunk position and trunk motion characteristics on injury. Spine 18:617–628.
Marras, WS, SA Lavender, S Leurgans, F Fathallah, WG Allread, SA Ferguson, and S Rajulu. 1995. Biomechanical risk factors for occupationally related low back disorder risk. Ergonomics 35:377–410.
McMichael, AJ, DA Andjelkovich, and HA Tyroler. 1976. Cancer mortality among rubber workers: An epidemiologic study. Ann NY Acad Sci 271:125–137.
McMichael, AJ, R Spirtas, and LL Kupper. 1974. An epidemiologic study of mortality within a cohort of rubber workers, 1964–72. J Occup Med 16:458–464.
McMichael, AJ, R Spirtas, LL Kupper, and JF Gamble. 1975. Solvent exposures and leukemia among rubber workers: An epidemiologic study. J Occup Med 17:234–239.
McMichael, AJ, R Spirtas, JF Gamble, and PM Tousey. 1976a. Mortality among rubber workers: Relationship to specific jobs. J Occup Med 18:178–185.
McMichael, AJ, WS Gerber, JF Gamble, and WM Lednar. 1976b. Chronic respiratory symptoms and job type within the rubber industry. J Occup Med 18:611–617.
Monson, RR and KK Nakano. 1976a. Mortality among rubber workers. I. White male union employees in Akron, Ohio. Am J Epidemiol 103:284–296.
—. 1976b. Mortality among rubber workers. II. Other employees. Am J Epidemiol 103:297–303.
Monson, RR and LJ Fine. 1978. Cancer mortality and morbidity among rubber workers. J Natl Cancer Inst 61:1047–1053.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1995. Standard for Ovens and Furnaces. NFPA 86. Quincy, MA: NFPA.
National Joint Industrial Council for the Rubber Manufacturing Industry. 1959. Running Nip Accidents. London: National Joint Industrial Council for the Rubber Manufacturing Industry.
—.1967. Safe Working of Calenders. London: National Joint Industrial Council for the Rubber Manufacturing Industry.
Negri, E, G Piolatto, E Pira, A Decarli, J Kaldor, and C LaVecchia. 1989. Cancer mortality in a northern Italian cohort of rubber workers. Br J Ind Med 46:624–628.
Norseth, T, A Anderson, and J Giltvedt. 1983. Cancer incidence in the rubber industry in Norway. Scand J Work Environ Health 9:69–71.
Nutt, A. 1976. Measurement of some potentially hazardous materials in the atmosphere of rubber factories. Environ Health Persp 17:117–123.
Parkes, HG, CA Veys, JAH Waterhouse, and A Peters. 1982. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry. Br J Ind Med 39:209–220.
Peters, JM, RR Monson, WA Burgess, and LJ Fine. 1976. Occupational disease in the rubber industry. Environ Health Persp 17:31–34.
Solionova, LG and VB Smulevich. 1991. Mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of rubber workers in Moscow. Scand J Work Environ Health 19:96–101.
Sorahan, R, HG Parkes, CA Veys, and JAH Waterhouse. 1986. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry 1946–80. Br J Ind Med 43:363–373.
Sorahan, R, HG Parkes, CA Veys, JAH Waterhouse, JK Straughan, and A Nutt. 1989. Mortality in the British rubber industry 1946–85. Br J Ind Med 46:1–11.
Szeszenia-Daborowaska, N, U Wilezynska, T Kaczmarek, and W Szymezak. 1991. Cancer mortality among male workers in the Polish rubber industry. Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 4:149–157.
Van Ert, MD, EW Arp, RL Harris, MJ Symons, and TM Williams. 1980. Worker exposures to chemical agents in the manufacture of rubber tires: Solvent vapor studies. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 41:212–219.
Wang, HW, XJ You, YH Qu, WF Wang, DA Wang, YM Long, and JA Ni. 1984. Investigation of cancer epidemiology and study of carcinogenic agents in the Shanghai rubber industry. Cancer Res 44:3101–3105.
Weiland, SK, KA Mundt, U Keil, B Kraemer, T Birk, M Person, AM Bucher, K Straif, J Schumann, and L Chambless. 1996. Cancer mortality among workers in the German rubber industry. Occup Environ Med 53:289–298.
Williams, TM, RL Harris, EW Arp, MJ Symons, and MD Van Ert. 1980. Worker exposure to chemical agents in the manufacture of rubber tires and tubes: Particulates. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 41:204–211.
Wolf, PH, D Andjelkovich, A Smith, and H Tyroler. 1981. A case-control study of leukemia in the U.S. rubber industry. J Occup Med 23:103–108.
Zhang, ZF, SZ Yu, WX Li, and BCK Choi. 1989. Smoking, occupational exposure to rubber and lung cancer. Br J Ind Med 46:12–15.