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General Profile

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The printing, commercial photography and reproduction industries are important worldwide in terms of their economic significance. The printing industry is very diverse in technologies and in size of enterprises. However, regardless of size as measured by production volume, the different printing technologies described in this chapter are the most common. In terms of production volume, there are a limited number of large-scale operations, but many small ones. From the economic perspective, the printing industry is one of the largest industries and generates annual revenues of at least US$500 billion worldwide. Similarly, the commercial photography industry is diverse, with a limited number of large-volume and many small-volume operations. Photofinishing volume is about equally divided between the large and small-volume operations. The commercial photographic market generates annual revenues of approximately US$60 billion worldwide, with photofinishing operations comprising approximately 40% of this total. The reproduction industry, which consists of smaller-volume operations with combined annual revenues of about US$27 billion, generates close to 2 trillion copies annually. In addition, reproduction and duplication services on an even smaller scale are provided onsite at most organizations and companies.

Health, environmental and safety issues in these industries are evolving in response to substitutions with potentially less hazardous materials, new industrial hygiene control strategies, and the advent of new technologies, such as the introduction of digital technologies, electronic imaging and computers. Many historically important health and safety issues (e.g., solvents in the printing industry or formaldehyde as a stabilizer in photoprocessing solutions) will not be issues in the future due to material substitution or other risk management strategies. Nevertheless, new health, environmental and safety issues will arise that will have to be addressed by health and safety professionals. This suggests the continued importance of health and environmental monitoring as part of an effective risk management strategy in the printing, commercial photography and reproduction industries.

 

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" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Electrical Appliances and Equipment
Metal Processing and Metal Working Industry
Microelectronics and Semiconductors
Glass, Pottery and Related Materials
Printing, Photography and Reproduction Industry
Woodworking
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Printing, Photography and Reproduction Industry References

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Dubrow, R. 1986. Malignant melanoma in the printing industry. Am J Ind Med 10:119-126.

Friedlander, BR, FT Hearne and BJ Newman. 1982. Mortality, cancer incidence, and sickness-absence in photographic processors: An epidemiologic study. J Occup Med 24:605-613.

Hodgson, MJ and DK Parkinson. 1986. Respiratory disease in a photographer. Am J Ind Med 9:349-54.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1996. Printing Processes and Printing Inks, Carbon Black and Some Nitro Compounds. Vol 65. Lyon: IARC.

Kipen, H and Y Lerman. 1986. Respiratory abnormalities among photographic developers: A report of three cases. Am J Ind Med 9:341-47.

Leon, DA. 1994. Mortality in the British printing industry: A historical cohort study of trade union members in Manchester. Occ and Envir Med 51:79-86.

Leon, DA, P Thomas, and S Hutchings. 1994. Lung cancer among newspaper printers exposed to ink mist: A study of trade union members in Manchester, England. Occup and Env Med 51:87-94.

Michaels, D, SR Zoloth, and FB Stern. 1991. Does low-level lead exposure increase risk of death? A mortality study of newspaper printers. Int J Epidemiol 20:978-983.

Nielson, H, L Henriksen, and JH Olsen. 1996. Malignant melanoma among lithographers. Scand J Work Environ Health 22:108-11.

Paganini-Hill, A, E Glazer, BE Henderson, and RK Ross. 1980. Cause-specific mortality among newspaper web pressmen. J Occup Med 22:542-44.

Pifer, JW. 1995. Mortality Update of the 1964 U.S. Kodak Processing Laboratories Cohort through 1994. Kodak Report EP 95-11. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak Company.

Pifer, JW, FT Hearne, FA Swanson, and JL O’Donoghue. 1995. Mortality study of employees engaged in the manufacture and use of hydroquinone. Arch Occup Environ Health 67:267-80.

Sinks, T, B Lushniak, BJ Haussler et al. 1992. Renal cell disease among paperboard printing workers. Epidemiology 3:483-89.

Svensson, BG, G Nise, V Englander et al. 1990. Deaths and tumours among rotogravure printers exposed to toluene. Br J Ind Med 47:372-79.