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Health Effects and Disease Patterns

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The health and safety problems in the forestry and lumber industries are covered elsewhere in this Encyclopaedia. This article will deal with wood as it arrives from the mill and is used in carpentry and the making of furniture and other articles. These activities are predominantly performed in small enterprises. Many workers in these industries are individual contractors and, therefore, not listed as employees, and large numbers of individuals are exposed in do-it-yourself projects and in-home workshops. This means that many of the workers involved are inadequately trained and are supervised poorly or not at all, while proper safeguards and protective equipment are often lacking.

Ahman and colleagues (1995a, 1995b, 1996) call attention to the exposure of teachers of industrial arts and woodworking in Sweden. In contrast to unexposed controls, these teachers had notable (but mainly reversible) nasal effects and complaints that increased with the number of classes from the beginning of the week and receded over the weekends, even though the dust concentrations were below the Swedish threshold limit of 2 mg/m3. In several establishments in the Netherlands, dust levels regularly exceeded that limit, and during sanding operations in a furniture factory, almost all exposures were over the local threshold limit of 5 mg/m3 (Scheeper, Kromhout and Boleij 1995).

Accidental Injuries

The most common health problem in the wood and woodworking industries is accidental injuries. These are more frequent among younger, inexperienced workers, and, for the most part, they are relatively minor. On occasion, however, they may involve long-term impairment or loss of an extremity. They include: splinters, which may become infected, and lacerations, gouges and amputations resulting from improperly used or inadequately guarded woodworking machinery (Ma, Wang and Chou 1991); sprains and strains from injudicious lifting or working in an awkward position (Nestor, Bobick and Pizatella 1990); repetitive motion injuries involving the hand or shoulder; and eye injuries. Many if not most of these can be prevented by proper training, the judicious application of machine guards and restraints and the use of personal protective equipment such as gloves and safety glasses. When they occur, prompt removal of splinters and prevention of infection by expeditious cleansing and first aid treatment of wounds will minimize disability.

Wood Dust

Wood dust exposure occurs whenever wood is sawed, chipped, planed, routed or sanded. The effects vary with the intensity and duration of the exposure and the size of the particles. Particles in the eyes may cause irritation, and wood dust gathering in skin folds may be aggravated by perspiration and chemicals and lead to irritation and infection. These effects may be reduced by vacuum removal of the dust, protective masks and clothing and good personal hygiene practices.

Nasopharyngeal and respiratory passages

Wood dust in the nasal passages may diminish mucociliary clearance and impair olfactory sensitivity (Andersen, Solgaard and Andersen 1976; Ahman et al. 1996). These may lead to irritation, frequent sneezing, nosebleeds and infection of the sinuses (Imbus 1994).

Exposures in a furniture factory (Whitehead, Ashikaga and Vacek 1981) and in sawmill workers (Hessel et al. 1995) were shown to be accompanied by decreases in both 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), adjusted for age, height and smoking. These were accompanied by significant increases in shortness of breath and wheeze with chest tightness and the occurrence of bronchitis and asthma. There is, however, no convincing evidence of other lung disease due to wood dust exposures (Imbus 1994). In a 6-year prospective follow-up study of approximately 350,000 males in the United States, the 11,541 individuals who reported having been employed in wood-related occupations had a lower relative risk of mortality due to non-malignant respiratory disease than those who did not report exposure to wood dust (Demers et al. 1996).

Allergy and Asthma

Some woods, notably teak, mansonia and radiata pine, contain chemicals that are irritants (see table 1 for an extended list of wood species, their geographic origins, and their health effects). Some species may cause allergic contact dermatitis (e.g., Douglas fir, western red cedar, poplar, rosewood, teak, African mahogany and other “exotic” woods). Western red cedar, rosewood, mahogany and other exotic woods have been shown to cause asthma (Imbus 1994).


An unusually high incidence of nasal cancer has been described among woodworkers in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States (Imbus 1994). A recent pooled re-analysis of 12 case-control cohort studies conducted in seven countries confirmed a high risk of nasopharyngeal cancer among woodworkers (Demers et al. 1995). The cause of these excesses of nasal cancer is not known, but, according to recent reports from the United Kingdom and the United States, the risk of nasal cancer among furniture workers has declined since the Second World War, presumably reflecting changes in the manufacturing process (Imbus 1994). No excess risk of sino-nasal cancer was found among the 45,399 men exposed to wood dust included among the 362,823 men enrolled in the American Cancer Society’s 6-year Cancer Prevention Study, but, the researchers note, the number of cases was small. They did, however, find an especially high increase in lung cancer mortality among woodworkers who also reported exposure to asbestos or formaldehyde, and suggested that exposure to these known carcinogens was responsible for the observed increased risk (Stellman et al., in press).

Chemical Exposures

Wood may contain biological contaminants. Moulds and fungi, which often grow on the bark of trees, may cause allergic reactions. Inhalation of fungal spores found on maple, redwood and cork trees has been shown to cause maple bark disease, sequoiosis and suberosis (Imbus 1994).

Wood often contains exogenous chemicals applied in the course of its processing. These include adhesives, solvents, resin binders, insecticides and fungicides, waterproofing compounds, paints and pigments, lacquers and varnishes. Many of these are volatile and may be emitted when the wood is treated, heated or incinerated; they are also conveyed as elements in wood dust. The most important of these include: toluene, methanol, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, n-butyl alcohol, 1, 1,1-trichlorethane and dichloromethane (EPA 1995).


Health hazards of the wood and woodworking industries may be controlled by installation of engineering controls (e.g., proper placement and guarding of power machinery, ventilation systems to control wood dust and chemical emissions) and personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, safety glasses, respirators), coupled with periodic inspections to ensure that these are properly maintained and used. Perhaps most important is appropriate education and training of the workers and their supervisors.

Table 1. Poisonous, allergenic and biologically active wood varieties

Scientific names Selected commercial names Family Health Impairment
Abies alba Mill (A. pectinata D.C.) Silver fir Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Acacia spp.
A. harpophylla
F. Muell.
A. melanoxylon
R. Br.
A. seyal
A. shirley
Australian blackwood Mimosaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Acer spp.
A. platanoides
Maple Aceraceae Dermatitis
Afrormosia elata Harms.
(Pericopsis elata
Van Meeuwen)
Afrormosia, kokrodua, asamala, obang, oleo pardo, bohele, mohole Papilionaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Afzelia africana Smith
A. bijuga
A. Chev. (Intsia bijuga A. Cunn.
A. palembanica
Bak. (Intsia palembanica Bak.)
Doussié, afzelia, aligua, apa, chanfuta, lingue merbau, intsia, hintsy Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Agonandra brasiliensis Miers Pao, marfim, granadillo Olacaceae Dermatitis
Ailanthus altissima Mill Chinese sumac Simaroubaceae Dermatitis
Albizzia falcata Backer 
A. ferruginea Benth.
A. lebbek Benth 
A. toona F.M. Bail
Kokko, siris
Mimosaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; 
toxic effects
Alnus spp.
A. glutinosa
Common alder
Black alder
Betulaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Amyris spp.
A. balsamifera
A. toxifera
Venezuelan or West Indian sandalwood Rutaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Anacardium occidentale L.
A. excelsum
Cashew Anacardiaceae Dermatitis
Andira araroba Aguiar. (Vataireopsis araroba Ducke)
A. coriacea
A. inermis
Red cabbage tree Partridge wood Papilionaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Aningeria spp.
A. robusta
Aubr. and Pell.
A. altissima
Aubr. and Pell.
Antiaris africana
A. welwitschi
Aningeria Antiaris, ako, chen chen Sapotaceae Moraceae Conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma Toxic effects
Apuleia molaris spruce (A. leiocarpa MacBride)
(A. ferrea
Redwood Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Araucaria angustifolia O. Ktze
A. brasiliana
A. Rich.
Parana pine, araucaria Araucariaceae Toxic effects
Aspidosperma spp.
A. peroba
Fr. All.
A. vargasii
A. DC.
Red peroba Pau marfim, pau amarello, pequia marfim, guatambu, amarilla, pequia Apocynaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-
rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Astrocaryum spp. Palm Palmaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Aucoumea klaineana Pierre  Gabon mahogany Burseraceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Autranella congolensis
A. Chev. (Mimusops congolensis
De Wild.)
Mukulungu, autracon, elang, bouanga, kulungu Sapotaceae Dermatitis
Bactris spp. (Astrocaryum spp.) Palm Palmaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Balfourodendron riedelianum Engl. Guatambu, gutambu blanco Rutaceae Dermatitis
Batesia floribunda Benth. Acapu rana Caesalpinaceae Toxic effects
Berberis vulgaris L. Barberry Berberidaceae Toxic effects
Betula spp.
B. alba
L. (B. pendula Roth.)
Birch Betulaceae Dermatitis
Blepharocarva involucrigera F. Muell.  Rosebutternut Anacardiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Bombax brevicuspe Sprague
B. chevalieri
Kondroti, alone Bombacaceae Dermatitis
Bowdichia spp.
B. nitida
B. guianensis
Ducke (Diplotropis guianensis Benth.) 
(Diplotropis purpurea
Black sucupira Papilionaceae Dermatitis
Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch. Muhuhu Compositae Dermatitis
Breonia spp. Molompangady Rubiaceae Dermatitis
Brosimum spp.
B. guianense
Hub. (Piratinera guianensis Aubl.)
Snakewood, letterwood, tigerwood Moraceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Brya ebenus DC. (Amerimnum ebenus Sw.)
Brya buxifolia
Brown ebony, green ebony, Jamaican ebony, tropical American ebony Papilionaceae Dermatitis
Buxus sempervirens L.
B. macowani
European boxwood, East London b., Cape b. Buxaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Guilandina echinata Spreng.) Brasilwood Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Callitris columellaris F. Muell. White cypress pine Cupressaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Calophyllum spp.
C. brasiliense
Santa maria, jacareuba, kurahura, galba Guttiferae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Campsiandra laurifolia Benth. Acapu rana Caesalpinaceae Toxic effects
Carpinus betulus Hornbeam Betulaceae Dermatitis
Cassia siamea Lamk. Tagayasan, muong ten, djohar Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Castanea dentata Borkh
C. sativa
C. pumila
Chestnut, sweet chestnut Fagaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. Black bean, Australian or Moreton Bay chestnut Papilionaceae Dermatitis
Cedrela spp. (Toona spp.) Red cedar, Australian cedar Meliaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex. Lamb.) G. Don
(C. libani
Barrel. lc)
Deodar Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Celtis brieyi De Wild.
C. cinnamomea
Ulmaceae Dermatitis
Chlorophora excelsa Benth. and Hook I.
C. regia
A. Chev.
C. tinctoria
(L.) Daub.
Iroko, gelbholz, yellowood, kambala, mvule, odum, moule, African teak, abang, tatajuba, fustic, mora Moraceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Chloroxylon spp.
C. swietenia
Ceylon satinwood Rutaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Chrysophyllum spp. Najara Sapotaceae Dermatitis
Cinnamomum camphora Nees and Ebeim Asian camphorwood, cinnamon Lauraceae Toxic effects
Cryptocarya pleurosperma White and Francis Poison walnut Lauraceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Dacrycarpus dacryoides (A. Rich.) de Laub. New Zealand white pine Podocarpaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Dacrydium cupressinum Soland Sempilor, rimu Podocarpaceae conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Dactylocladus stenostachys Oliv. Jong kong, merebong, medang tabak Melastomaceae Toxic effects
Dalbergia spp.
D. amerimnon
D. granadillo
D. hypoleuca
D. latifolia
D. melanoxylon
Guill. and Perr.
D. nigra
Fr. All.
D. oliveri
D. retusa
D. sissoo
D. stevensonii
Ebony Red foxwood Indian rosewood, Bombay blackwood, African blackwood, pallisander, riopalissandro, Brasilian rosewood, jacaranda Burma rosewood
Red foxwood
Nagaed wood, Honduras rosewood
Papilionaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma;
toxic effects
Dialium spp.
D. dinklangeri
Eyoum, eyum Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Diospyros spp.
D. celebica
D. crassiflora
D. ebenum
Ebony, African ebony Macassar ebony, African ebony, Ceylon ebony Ebenaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Dipterocarpus spp.
D. alatus
Keruing, gurjum, yang, keruing Dipterocarpaceae Dermatitis
Distemonanthus benthamianus Baill. Movingui, ayan, anyaran, Nigerian satinwood Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis
Dysoxylum spp.
D. fraseranum
Mahogany, stavewood, red bean Meliaceae dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
D. muelleri Benth. Rose mahogany    
Echirospermum balthazarii Fr. All. (Plathymenia reticulataBenth.) Vinhatico Mimosaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Entandophragma spp.
E. angolense
E. candollei
E. cylindricum
E. utile
Kosipo, omo
Sapelli, sapele, aboudikro
Sipo, utile, assié,
kalungi, mufumbi
Meliaceae Dermatitis;
allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Erythrophloeum guineense G. Don
E. ivorense
A. Chev.
Tali, missanda, eloun, massanda, sasswood, erun, redwater tree Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. Guaranta Rutaceae Dermatitis
Eucalyptus spp.
E. delegatensis
R.T. Back
E. hemiphloia
F. Muell.
E. leucoxylon
E. maculata
E. marginata
Donn ex Sm.
E. microtheca
F. Muell.
E. obliqua
L. Herit.
E. regnans
F. Muell.
E. saligna

Alpine ash
Grey box
Yellow gum
Spotted gum Mountain ash
Myrtaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Euxylophora paraensis Hub. Boxwood Rutaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Excoecaria africana M. Arg. (Spirostachys africana Sand)
E. agallocha
African sandalwood, tabootie, geor, aloewood, blind-your-eye Euphorbiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Fagara spp.
F. flava
Krug and Urb. (Zanthoxylum flavum Vahl.)
F. heitzii
Aubr. and Pell.
F. macrophylla
Yellow sanders, West Indian satinwood, atlaswood, olon, bongo, mbanza Rutaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Fagus spp. (Nothofagus spp.) 
F. sylvatica
Beech Fagaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) Johnston
F. patagonica Hook. f.)
Alerce Cupressaceae Dermatitis
Flindersia australis R. Br.
F. brayleyana
F. Muell.
F. pimenteliana
F. Muell.
Australian teak, Queensland maple, maple
Silkwood, Australian maple
Rutaceae Dermatitis
Fraxinus spp.
F. excelsior
Ash Oleaceae Dermatitis
Gluta spp.
G. rhengas
L. (Melanorrhoea spp.)
M. curtisii
M. laccifera wallichii
Rengas, gluta
Renga wood
Anacardiaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Gonioma kamassi E. Mey. Knysna boxwood, kamassi Apocynaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Gonystylus bancanus Baill. Ramin, melawis, akenia Gonystylaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum (Verm.) Harms. Nigerian cedar Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Silky oak Proteaceae Dermatitis
Guaiacum officinale L. Gaiac, lignum vitae Zygophyllaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Guarea spp.
G. cedrata
Pell. G. laurentii De Wild.
G. thompsonii
Nigerian pearwood Cedar mahogany
Scented guarea
Black guarea
Meliaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Halfordia scleroxyla F. Muell.
H. papuana
Saffron-heart Polygonaceae Dermatitis; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Hernandia spp.
H. sonora
L. (H. guianensis Aubl.)
Mirobolan, topolite Hernandiaceae Dermatitis
Hippomane mancinella L. Beach apple Euphorbiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Illipe latifolia F. Muell.
I. longifolia
F. Muell. (Bassia latifolia Roxb.) (B. longifoliaRoxb.)
Moak, edel teak Sapotaceae Dermatitis
Jacaranda spp.
J. brasiliana
Pers. Syn. (Bignonia brasiliana Lam.)
J. coerulea
(I.) Gris.
Jacaranda Caroba, boxwood Bignoniaceae Dermatitis
Juglans spp.
J. nigra
J. regia
Walnut Juglandaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Juniperus sabina L.
J. phoenicea
J. virginiana
Virginian pencil cedar, Eastern red cedar Cupressaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Khaya antotheca C. DC. K. ivorensis A. Chev.
K. senegalensis
A. Juss.
Ogwango, African mahogany, krala Dry-zone mahogany Meliaceae Dermatitis; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Laburnum anagyroides Medic. (Cytisus laburnum L.)
L. vulgare
Laburnum Papilionaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Larix spp.
L. decidua
L. europea
European larch
Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Liquidambar styracifolia L. Amberbaum, satin-nussbaum Hamamelidaceae Dermatitis
Liriodendron tulipifera L. American whitewood, tulip tree Magnoliaceae Dermatitis
Lovoa trichilioides Harms. (L. klaineana Pierre) Dibetou, African walnut, apopo, tigerwood, side Meliaceae dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Lucuma spp. (Pouteria spp.)
L. procera
Guapeva, abiurana
Sapotaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Maba ebenus Wight. Makassar-ebenholz Ebenaceae Dermatitis
Machaerium pedicellatum Vog.
M. scleroxylon
M. violaceum
Kingswood Papilionaceae Dermatitis
Mansonia altissima A. Chev. Nigerian walnut Sterculiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Melanoxylon brauna Schott Brauna, grauna Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis
Microberlinia brazzavillensis A. Chev.
M. bisulcata
A. Chev.
African zebrawood Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Millettia laurentii De Wild.
M. stuhlmannii
Papilionaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma;
toxic effects
Mimusops spp. (Manilkara spp.)
spp. (Dumoria spp.) (Tieghemella spp.)
M. congolensis
De Wild. (Autranella congolensis A. Chev.)
M. djave
Engl. (Baillonella toxisperma Pierre)
M. heckelii
Hutch. et Dalz. (Tieghemella heckelii Pierre)  
(Dumoria heckelii
A. Chev.)
Mukulungu, autracon Moabi
Cherry mahogany
Sapotaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma;
extrinsic alveolitis; toxic effects
Mitragyna ciliata Aubr. and Pell.
M. stipulosa
O. Ktze
Vuku, African poplar
Rubiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma;
toxic effects
Nauclea diderrichii Merrill (Sarcocephalus diderrichii De Wild.)
Nauclea trillessi
Bilinga, opepe, kussia, badi, West African boxwood Rubiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Nesogordonia papaverifera R. Capuron Kotibé, danta, epro, otutu, ovové, aborbora Tiliaceae Toxic effects
Ocotea spp.
O. bullata
E. Mey
O. porosa
L. Barr. (Phoebe porosa Mez.)
O. rodiaei
Mez. (Nectandra rodiaei Schomb.)
O. rubra
O. usambarensis
Stinkwood Laurel Brazilian walnut
Louro vermelho
East African camphorwood
Lauraceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Paratecoma spp.
P. alba
P. peroba

Brazilian white peroba
Peroba white. p.
Bignoniaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Parinarium spp.
P. guianense (Parinari
spp.) (Brosimum spp.)
P. variegatum

Rosaceae Dermatitis
Peltogyne spp.
P. densiflora
Blue wood, purpleheart Caesalpinaceae Toxic effects
Phyllanthus ferdinandi F.v.M. Lignum vitae, chow way, tow war Euphorbiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Picea spp.
P. abies
P. excelsa
P. mariana
P. polita
European spruce, whitewood
Black spruce
Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Pinus spp.
P. radiata
D. Don
Pine Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Piptadenia africana Hook f.
Piptadeniastrum africanum
Dabema, dahoma, ekhimi
agobin, mpewere, bukundu
Mimosaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Platanus spp. Plane Platanaceae Dermatitis
Pometia spp.
P. pinnata
Sapindaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Populus spp. Poplar Salicaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Prosopis juliflora D.C. Cashaw Mimosaceae Dermatitis
Prunus spp.
P. serotina
Rosaceae dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Pseudomorus brunoniana Bureau White handlewood Moraceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Pseudotsuga douglasii Carr. (P. menziesii Franco) Douglas fir, red fir, Douglas spruce Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Pterocarpus spp.
P. angolensis
P. indicus
P. santalinus
L.f. (Vatairea guianensis Aubl.)
African padauk, New Guinea rosewood, red sandalwood, red sanders, quassia wood Papilionaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Pycnanthus angolensis Warb. (P. kombo Warb.) Ilomba Myristicaceae Toxic effects
Quercus spp. Oak Fagaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Raputia alba Engl.
R. magnifica
Arapoca branca, arapoca Rutaceae Dermatitis
Rauwolfia pentaphylla Stapf. O. Peroba Apocynaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Sandoricum spp.
S. indicum
Sentul, katon, kra-ton, ketjapi, thitto Meliaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Schinopsis lorentzii Engl.
S. balansae
Quebracho colorado, red q., San Juan, pau mulato Anacardiaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Semercarpus australiensis Engl.
S. anacardium
Marking nut Anacardiaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects
Sequoia sempervirens Endl. Sequoia, California
Taxodiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Shorea spp. Alan, almon, red balau
White heavy, red lauan, white L., yellow L., mayapis, meranti bakau, dark red M., light red M., red M., white M., yellow M., red seraya, white seraya
Dipterocarpaceae Dermatitis
S. assamica Dyer Yellow lauan, white meranti    
Staudtia stipitata Warb. (S. gabonensis Warb.) Niové Myristicaceae Dermatitis
Swietenia spp.
S. macrophylla
S. mahogany
Mahogany, Honduras mahogany, Tabasco m., baywood, American mahogany,
Cuban mahogany
Meliaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis; toxic effects
Swintonia spicifera Hook.
S. floribunda
Merpauh Anacardiaceae Dermatitis
Tabebuia spp.
T. ipe
Standl. (T. avellanedae Lor. ex Gris.)
T. guayacan Hensl. (T. lapacho
K. Schum)
Araguan, ipé preto, lapacho Bignoniaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Taxus baccata L. Yew Taxaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis; toxic effects
Tecoma spp.
T. araliacea
T. lapacho
Green heart
Bignoniaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Tectona grandis L. Teak, djati, kyun, teck Verbenaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Terminalia alata Roth.
T. superba
Engl. and Diels.
Indian laurel
limba, afara, ofram, fraké, korina, akom
Combretaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Thuja occidentalis L.
T. plicata
D. Don
T. standishii
White cedar
Western red cedar
Cupressaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Tieghemella africana A. Chev. (Dumoria spp.)
T. heckelii
Makoré, douka, okola, ukola, makoré, abacu, baku, African cherry Sapotaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma; toxic effects
Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum Obeche, samba, wawa, abachi, African whitewood, arere Sterculiaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma
Tsuga heterophylla Sarg. Tsuga, Western hemlock Pinaceae Dermatitis
Turraeanthus africana Pell. Avodiré
Meliaceae Dermatitis; allergic extrinsic alveolitis
Ulmus spp. Elm Ulmaceae Dermatitis
Vitex ciliata Pell.   Verbenaceae Dermatitis
V. congolensis De Wild. and Th. Dur Difundu    
V. pachyphylla Bak. Evino    
Xylia dolabriformis Benth.   Mimosaceae Conjunctivitis-rhinitis;
X. xylocarpa Taub. Pyinkado   asthma
Zollernia paraensis Huber Santo wood Caesalpinaceae Dermatitis; toxic effects

Source: Istituto del Legno, Florence, Italy.



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Woodworking References

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