enarzh-TWfrdeitjaptrusressw
Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:28

Isocyanates: Physical & Chemical Properties

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point ( °C)

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE
3173-53-3

liquid

168

125.16

reacts

0.98

4.3

48 cc

DIANISIDINE DIISOCYANATE
91-93-0

grey to brown powder

112

296.30

ETHYL ISOCYANATE
109-90-0

60

71.1

insol

0.9031

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE
822-06-0

liquid

255

-67

168.2

reacts

1.0528

5.81

@ 25 °C

0.9 ll
9.5 ul

140 oc

454

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE
4098-71-9

colourless to slightly yellow liquid

@ 10 torr

-60

222.32

reacts

1.062 g/ml

0.04 Pa

155-161

430

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE
101-68-8

light-yellow, fused solid; crystals

@ 5 mm Hg

37

250.27

0.2 g/100 ml

@ 70 °C

8.6

196 cc

240

METHYL ISOCYANATE
624-83-9

colourless liquid

39.5

-45

57.1

v sol

0.9599

1.42

46.4

5.3 ll
26 ul

-7 cc

534

1,5-NAPHTYLENE DIISOCYANATE
3173-72-6

crystals

130

210.19

PHENYL ISOCYANATE
103-71-9

liquid

158-168

-30

119.12

@ 19.6 °C/4 °C

TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE
26471-62-5

clear colourless to pale yellow liquid

251

11-14

@ 25 °C

0.01 torr

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISO­CYANATE
584-84-9

a water-white liquid which turns straw-coloured on standing; clear to light yellow liquid or crystals; colourless to pale yellow, solid or liquid

251

20.5

174.15

reacts

1.2244

6.0

1.3 Pa

0.9 ll
9.5 ul

132 cc

620

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISO­CYANATE
91-08-7

@ 18 mm Hg

 

Back

Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:26

Isocyanates: Physical & Chemical Hazards

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division / Subsidiary Risks

1,5-NAPHTYLENE DIISOCYANATE
3173-72-6

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides)

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE
101-68-8

The substance may polymerize due to heating above 204 °C or under the influence of temperatures above 204 °C. •On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive fumes including nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide. •Reacts readily with water to form insoluble polyureas. •Reacts violently with acids, alcohols, amines, bases and oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

6.1

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE
3173-53-3

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance may polymerize due to heating and under the influence of incompatible materials. •The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides). •Reacts with oxidants and strong bases, water, alcohol, acids and amines

6.1

ETHYL ISOCYANATE
109-90-0

3/ 6.1

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE
822-06-0

The substance will polymerize under the influence of temperatures above 93 °C. •On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive fumes including nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide. •The substance decomposes on contact with water to form amine and polyureas. •Reacts violently with acids, alcohols, amines, bases and oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard. •Attacks copper

6.1

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE
4098-71-9

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides). •Reacts with oxidants, acids, alcohols, amines, amides, mercaptanes. •Attacks many metals, plastics, and rubber

6.1

METHYL ISOCYANATE
624-83-9

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. •The vapour mixes well with air, explosive mixtures are easily formed

The substance may polymerize due to heating or under the influence of water and catalysts. •The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases (hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide). •Reacts with strong oxidants. •Reacts violently with water, acids, alcohols, amines, iron, steel, zinc, tin, copper (or alloys of these metals) causing fire and explosion hazard. •Attacks some forms of plastic, rubber and coatings

6.1/ 3

PHENYL ISOCYANATE
103-71-9

6.1

TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE
26471-62-5

6.1

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE
584-84-9

6.1

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISOCYANATE
91-08-7

6.1

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:25

Isocyanates: Health Hazards

Chemical Name         CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE     3173-53-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, laboured breathing, shortness of breath see ingestion

Skin: redness

Eyes: watering of eyes, redness, pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, vomiting

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE  822-06-0

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, laboured breathing, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, skin burns, blisters

Eyes: redness, pain, swelling of eyelids

Eyes; skin; resp sys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; cough, dysp, bron, wheez, pulm edema, asthma; corn damage, skin blisters

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE  4098-71-9

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; lungs

Inhalation: cough, sore throat, symptoms may be delayed

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

Eyes; skin; resp sys Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; chest tight, dysp, cough, sore throat; bron, wheez, pulm edema; possible resp sens; asthma

METHYL ISOCYANATE     624-83-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin; lungs

Inhalation: cough, dizziness, laboured breathing, shortness of breath, sore throat, unconsciousness, vomiting

Skin: may be absorbed, skin burns, pain

Eyes: pain, loss of vision, severe deep burns

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, sore throat, vomiting

Resp sys; eyes; skin Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; resp sens, cough, pulm secretions, chest pain, dysp; asthma; eye, skin damage; in animals: pulm edema

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE     101-68-8

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin

Inhalation: headache, nausea, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: pain, may cause corneal damage

Resp sys; eyes Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; resp sens, cough, pulm secretions, chest pain, dysp; asthma

1,5-NAPHTHYLENE DIISOCYANATE  3173-72-6

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; lungs

Inhalation: cough, laboured breathing, sore throat

Skin: redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain

Eyes, resp sys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; resp sens, cough, pulm secretions, chest pain, dysp; asthma

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE  584-84-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; nose

skin; lungs

Eyes; resp sys; skin Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; choke, paroxysmal cough; chest pain, retster soreness; nau, vomit, abdom pain; bron. Bronchospasm, pulm edema; dysp, asthma; conj, lac; derm, skin sens; (carc)

 

Back

Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:21

Isocyanates: Chemical Identification

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

3173533

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, cyclohexyl ester;
Cyclohexane, isocyanato-;
Isocyanatocyclohexane
UN2488

3173-53-3

91930

DIANISIDINE DIISOCYANATE

1,1'-Biphenyl, 4,4'-diisocyanato-3,3'-dimethoxy-;
4,4'-Diisocyanato-3,3'-dimethoxy-­1,1'-biphenyl;
3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine-4,4'-diisocyanate;
Isocyanic acid, 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylene ester

91-93-0

109900

ETHYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, ethyl ester;
Isocyanatoethane
UN2481

109-90-0

822060

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE

Desmodur H;
Desmodur N;
Hexamethylene diisocyanate ;
Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate;
1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate;
1,6-Hexanediol diisocyanate;
HMDI;
Tl 78
UN2281

822-06-0

7046619

ISOCYANIC ACID, NITROIMINODIETHYLENEDI-

3-Nitro-3-azapentane-1,5-diisocyanate;
Nitroiminodiethylenediisocyanic acid

7046-61-9

4098719

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE

Cyclohexane, 5-isocyanato-1-(isocyanatom­ethyl)-1,3,3-trimethyl-;
IPDI;
3-Isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohexylisocyanate;
Isocyanic acid, methylene(3,5,5-trimethyl-3,1-­cyclohexylene) ester;
Isophorone diamine diisocyanate
UN2906
UN2290

4098-71-9

101688

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, methylenedi-p-phenylene ester;
Bis(p-isocyanatophenyl)methane;
Caradate 30;
Desmodur 44;
Diphenylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate;
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate;
Hylene M 50;
Isonate;
Isonate 125M;
4,4'-Methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate)
UN2489

101-68-8

624839

METHYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, methyl ester;
Iso-cyanatomethane;
MIC
UN2480

624-83-9

3173726

1,5-NAPHTHALENE DIISOCYANATE

1,5-Diisocyanatonaphthalene;
Isocyanic acid, 1,5-naphthylene ester ;
1,5-Naphthalene diisocyanate;
Naphthalene, 1,5-diisocyanato-

3173-72-6

103719

PHENYL ISOCYANATE

Benzene, isocyanato-;
Mondur P;
Phenylcarbimide;
Phenyl carbonimide
UN2487

103-71-9

26471625

TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

Benzene-, 1,3-diisocyanatomethyl-;
Desmodur t100;
Diisocyanatomethylbenzene;
Diisocyanatotoluene;
Hylene-T;
Isocyanic acid, methylphenylene ester;
Mondur-TD;
Nacconate-100;
Niax isocyanate TDI
UN2078

26471-62-5

584849

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE

Cresorcinol diisocyanate;
Desmodur T80;
Di-iso-cyanatoluene;
2,4-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene (9 CI);
2,4-Diisocyanatotoluene;
Hylene T;
Mondur TD;
Rubinate TDI 80;
20 TDI;
2,4-TDI;
TDI-80;
TDI

584-84-9

91087

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISOCYANATE

2,6-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene;
2,6-Diisocyanatotoluene;
Hylene TCPA;
Isocyanic acid, 2-Methyl-m-phenylene ester;
2-Methyl-m-phenylene diisocyanate;
2-Methyl-m-phenylene isocyanate;
Niax TDI;
Niax TDI-p;
2,6-TDI

91-08-7

 

Back

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point (°C)

ANTHRACENE
120-12-7

monoclinic plates from alcohol recrystallization; when pure, colourless with violet fluorescence; when crystallized from benzene, colourless, lustrous plates are formed which exhibit a blue fluorescence; yellow crystals with blue fluorescence

342

218

178.22

insol

@ 25 °C

6.15

@ 145 °C

0.6 ll
? ul

121 cc

540

BENZ(a)ANTHRACENE
56-55-3

colourless/ plates recrystallized from glacial acetic acid or alcohol

400

162

228.3

@ 25 °C

5x10- 9 torr

BENZO(g,h,i)FLUOR­ANTHENE
203-12-3

crystals

149

insol

<10 Pa

BENZO(g,h,i)PERYLENE
191-24-2

large, pale yellow-green plates (recrystallized from xylene)

550

277

276.3

insol

@ 25 °C

BENZO(k)FLUORAN­THENE
207-08-9

pale yellow needles from benzene

480

217

252.3

insol

9.59x10- 11 torr

BENZO(a)PYRENE
50-32-8

pale yellow monoclinic needles from benzene & methanol; crystals may be monoclinic or orthorhombic; yellowish plates (from benzene and ligroin)

>360

179-179.3

252.30

insol

1.351

8.7

>1 mm Hg

BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE
205-99-2

needles (recrystallized from benzene), colourless needles (recrystallized from toluene or glacial acetic acid)

168

252.3

insol

<10 Pa

CHRYSENE
218-01-9

red blue fluorescent rhombic plates from benzene, acetic acid; orthorhombic bipyramidal plates from benzene; colourless platelets with blue fluorescence

448

255-256

228.28

insol

1.274

6.3x
10- 7 mm Hg

DIBENZ(a,h)ACRIDINE
226-36-8

yellow crystals

228

279.35

DIBENZ(a,h)ANTHRA­CENE
53-70-3

colourless plates or leaflets recrystallized from acetic acid; solution in concentrated sulfuric acid is red; crystals may be monoclinic or orthorhombic

524

266

278.33

insol

1.282

1x
10- 10 mm Hg

DIBENZ(a,j)ACRIDINE
224-42-0

yellow needles or prisms

216

279.35

DIBENZO(a,e)PYRENE
192-65-4

pale yellow needles in xylene; yellow-red in concn sulfuric acid solution

234

302.4

DIBENZO(a,h)PYRENE
189-64-0

golden yellow plates from xylene or trichlorobenzene; in
H2SO4 solution has red colour, changing later into violet or blue

308

302.38

DIBENZO(ai)PYRENE
189-55-9

greenish-yellow needles, prisms or lamellae

@ 0.05 mm Hg

281

302.4

2.39x
10- 14 mm ­Hg

DIBENZOFURAN
132-64-9

leaf or needles from alcohol; white crystals; crystalline solid

287

168.19

@ 25 °C

@ 99 °C/4 °C

5.8

@ 25 °C

FLUORANTHENE
206-44-0

coloured needles; pale yellow needles or plates from alcohol

375

111

202.2

insol

@ 0 °C/4 °C

0.01 mm Hg

NAPHTHACENE
83-32-9

white needles; orthorhombic bipyramidal needles from alcohol

279

95

154.21

insol

1.0242 at 90 °C/4 °C

5.32

10 mm Hg at 131.2 °C

PHENANTHRENE
85-01-8

monoclinic plates from alcohol; colourless shining crystals; leaflets

340

101

178.22

insol

@ 4 °C

6.15

@ 118.2 °C

171 oc

PYRENE
129-00-0

monoclinic prismatic tablets from alcohol or by sublimation; pure pyrene is colourless; pale yellow plates (when recrystallized from toluene); colourless solid (tetracene impuritites give yellow colour)

393

156

202.2

insol

@ 23 º C

@ 20 º C

 

Back

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

ANTHRACENE
120-12-7

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

The substance decomposes on heating, on contact with sunlight, under influence of strong oxidants producing acrid, toxic fumes, causing fire and explosion hazards

3

BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE
205-99-2

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed

BENZO(ghi)FLUORANTHENE
203-12-3

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed

BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE
207-08-9

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts with strong oxidants

BENZO(ghi)PERYLENE
191-24-2

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts with NO and NO2 to form nitro derivatives

DIBENZO(a,h)ANTHRACENE
53-70-3

Reacts with strong oxidants

4.1

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:13

Hydrocarbons, Polyaromatic: Health Hazards

Chemical Name    

CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

ANTHRACENE    120-12-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; GI tract

skin

Inhalation: cough, laboured breathing, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain

BENZO(a)ANTHRACENE   56-55-3

Skin: may be absorbed

BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE     205-99-2

Skin: may be absorbed

BENZO(ghi) FLUORANTHENE     203-12-3

Skin: may be absorbed

BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE     207-08-9

Skin: may be absorbed

BENZO(ghi)PERYLENE     191-24-2

Skin: may be absorbed

BENZO(a)PYRENE          50-32-8

genes and birth defects

DIBENZO(a,h)ANTHRACENE     53-70-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Skin: photosensitization

Eyes: redness, pain

 

Back

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

120127

ANTHRACENE

Anthracin;
Coal tar pitch volatiles: anthracene;
Green oil;
Paranaphthalene;
Tetra olive N2G

120-12-7

56553

BENZO(a)ANTHRACENE

Benzanthracene;
1,2-Benzanthracene;
1,2-Benz(a)anthracene;
Benzanthrene;
1,2-Benzanthrene;
Benzoanthracene;
Benzo(a)phenanthrene;
2,3-Benzophenanthrene;
2,3-Benzphenanthrene;
Naphthanthracene

56-55-3

205992

BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE

Benz(e)acephenanthrylene;
3,4-Benz(e)acephenanthrylene;
2,3-Benzfluoranthene;
3,4-Benzfluoranthene;
Benz(b)fluoranthene;
Benzo(e)fluoranthene;
2,3-Benzofluoranthene;
3,4-Benzofluoranthene

205-99-2

203123

BENZO(g,h,i)FLUORANTHENE

2,13-Benzofluoranthene;
7,10-Benzofluoranthene

203-12-3

207089

BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE

8,9-Benzofluoranthene;
11,12-Benzofluoranthene;
11,12-Benzo(k)fluoranthene;
2,3,1',8'-Binaphthylene;
Dibenzo(b,jk)fluorene

207-08-9

191242

BENZO(g,h,i)PERYLENE

1,12-Benzoperylene;
1,12-Benzperylene

191-24-2

50328

BENZO(a)PYRENE

Benzo(d,e,f)chrysene;
3,4-Benzopyrene;
6,7-Benzopyrene;
Benz(a)pyrene;
3,4-Benzpyrene;
3,4-Benz(a)pyrene

50-32-8

218019

CHRYSENE

1,2-Benzophenanthrene;
Benzo(a)phenanthrene;
1,2-Benzphenanthrene;
Benz(a)phenanthrene;
1,2,5,6-Dibenzonaphthalene

218-01-9

226368

DIBENZ(a,h)ACRIDINE

7-Azadibenz(a,h)anthracene;
Dibenz(a,d)acridine;
1,2,5,6-Dibenzacridine;
1,2,5,6-Dibenzoacridine;
1,2,5,6-Dinaphthacridine

226-36-8

224420

DIBENZ(a,j)ACRIDINE

7-Azadibenz(a,j)anthracene;
Db(a,j)ac;
Dibenz(a,f)acridine;
1,2,7,8-Dibenzacridine;
3,4,5,6-Dibenzacridine;
Dibenzo(a,j)acridine;
3,4,6,7-Dinaphthacridine

224-42-0

53703

DIBENZ(a,h)ANTHRACENE

1,2:5,6-Benzanthracene;
DBA;
1,2,5,6-DBA;
1,2:5,6-Dibenzanthracene;
1,2:5,6-Dibenz(a)anthracene;
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene;
1,2:5,6-Dibenzoanthracene

53-70-3

132649

DIBENZOFURAN

2,2'-Biphenylene oxide;
2,2'-Biphenylylene oxide;
Dibenzo(b,d)furan;
Diphenylene oxide

132-64-9

189640

DIBENZO(a,h)PYRENE

DB(a,h)p;
Dibenzo(b,def)chrysene;
1,2,6,7-Dibenzopyrene;
3,4,8,9-Dibenzopyrene

189-64-0

192654

DIBENZO(a,e)PYRENE

DB(a,e)p;
1,2,4,5-Dibenzopyrene;
Naphtho(1,2,3,4-def)chrysene

192-65-4

189559

DIBENZO(a,i)PYRENE

Benzo(rst)pentaphene;
Dibenzo(b,h)pyrene;
1,2,7,8-Dibenzopyrene;
3,4:9,10-Dibenzopyrene;
Dibenz(a,i)pyrene;
1,2:7,8-Dibenzpyrene;
3,4:9,10-Dibenzpyrene

189-55-9

206440

FLUORANTHENE

1,2-Benzacenaphthene;
Benzene, 1,2-(1,8-naphthylene)-;
Benzo(jk)fluorene;
1,2-(1,8-Naphthalenediyl)benzene;
1,2-(1,8-Naphthylene)benzene

206-44-0

83329

NAPHTHACENE

Acenaphthylene, 1,2-dihydro-;
1,8-Ethylenenaphthalene;
Naphthyleneethylene;
Periethylenenaphthalene

83-32-9

198550

PERYLENE

Dibenz(de,kl)anthracene;
Peri-dinaphthalene;
Perilene

198-55-0

85018

PHENANTHRENE

Coal tar pitch volatiles: phenanthrene;
Phenantrin

85-01-8

129000

PYRENE

Benzo(def)phenanthrene;
Coal tar pitch volatiles: pyrene

129-00-0

 

Back

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (ºC)

Auto Ignition Point (ºC)

BENZAL CHLORIDE
98-87-3

colourless oily liquid

205

-17

161.03

insol

1.26

5.6

0.04

1 ll
11 ul

93

BENZATHONIUM CHLORIDE
121-54-0

colourless crystals

164-166

448.10

v sol

BENZENE CHLORIDE
108-90-7

colourless liquid

132

-45

112.56

insol

1.1058

3.88

1.17

1.8 ll
9.6 ul

27

638

BENZOTRICHLORIDE
98-07-7

clear, colourless to yellowish liquid; oily liquid

221

-5

195.48

reacts

1.3756

6.77

20 Pa

2.1 ll
6.5 ul

127 cc

211

BENZOYL CHLORIDE
98-88-4

transparent, colourless liquid; slightly brown liquid

197

-1.0

140.57

decomposes

1.2120

4.9

50 Pa

1.2 ll
4.9 ul

88

197

BENZYL BROMIDE
100-39-0

clear liquid; colourless to yellow liquid

198-199

-4.0

171.04

insol

@ 22ºC/ 0ºC; 1.443

5.9

@ 32.2 ºC, 10.mm Hg

BENZYL CHLORIDE
100-44-7

colourless to slightly yellow liquid

179

-45

126.58

insol

1.100

4.4

120 Pa

1.1 ll
14.0 ul

67 cc

585

BENZYL CHLOROFORMATE
501-53-1

oily liquid; colourless to pale yellow liquid

103

170.60

1.20

BROMOBENZENE
108-86-1

mobile liquid; colourless

156

-30.6

157.02

insol

1.4950

5.41

@ 40 ºC

51

CHLORINATED CAMPHENE
8001-35-2

yellow waxy solid; amber waxy solid

65-90

414

insol

@ 25 ºC

14.3

@ 25(°C)

135

CHLOROBENZILATE
510-15-6

colourless solid (pure)

@ 0.04 mm Hg

36- 37.3

325.20

10 mg/l

1.2816

2.2x
10- 6mm Hg

4-CHLOROMETHYL BIPHENYL
1667-11-4

72

202.67

1-CHLORONAPH­THALENE
90-13-1

oily liquid; crystals from alcohol, acetone

259

-2.5

162.61

insol

1.19382

5.6

@ 25 ºC

>558

o-CHLOROTOLUENE
95-49-8

colourless liquid

159

35.1

126.6

insol

1.0826

@ 25 ºC

DDT
50-29-3

biaxial elongated tablets; chemically pure p,p-ddt consists of white needles; colourless crystals or white to slightly off-white powder

260

108.5

354.50

insol

0.98

1.5x
10- 7 mm Hg

o-DICHLOROBENZENE
95-50-1

colourless liquid

181

-17

147.01

insol

1.3048

5.05

@ 25 ºC

2 ll
9 ul

m-DICHLOROBENZENE
541-73-1

colourless liquid

173

-24.7

147.00

insol

1.2884

@ 25 ºC

p-DICHLOROBENZENE
106-46-7

white crystals; monoclinic prisms, leaves from acetone; available as pure crystals

174

53

147.01

insol

1.2475

5.08

@ 55 °C

2.5 ll
16 ul

66 cc

413

HEXACHLOROBENZENE
118-74-1

needles from benzene-alcohol; white needles

325

231

284.80

insol

@ 23.6 ºC

9.83

<0.1 Pa

242

HEXACHLORONAPH­THALENE
1335-87-1

white solid

344-388

137

334.74

insol

1.78

11.6

@ 25 ºC

HEXACHLOROPHENE
70-30-4

needles from benzene; white to light tan, crystalline powder

164

406.92

insol

OCTACHLORONAPH­THALENE
2234-13-1

pale yellow; needles from benzene & carbon tetrachloride; waxy yellow solid

440

192

403.74

insol

2.00

13.9

<0.13

PENTACHLOROBEN­ZENE
608-93-5

colourless crystalline solid

277

86

250.14

insol

@ 16.5 ºC

8.6

2.2 Pa

PENTACHLORONAPH­TALENE
1321-64-8

white solid; white powder; pale yellow solid

327-371

120

300.41

insol

1.7

10.4

<133 Pa

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1242)
53469-21-9

colorless mobile oil

325-366

261

@ 25

@ 25 ºC/15.5 ºC

@ 25 ºC

176-180 oc

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254)
11097-69-1

light yellow, viscous liquid

365-390

327

insol

@ 65 ºC/15.5 ºC

@ 25 °C

>141

TEREPHTHALOYL CHLORIDE
100-20-9

colourless needles

259

83.5

203.02

reacts

7.0

<10 Pa

180

1,2,4,5-TETRACHLO­ROBENZENE
95-94-3

white flakes, crystals

245

139.5

215.90

insol

1.9

7.4

@ 25 °C

155 cc

TETRACHLORONAPH­THALENE
1335-88-2

crystals; pale yellow solid; colourless to pale yellow solid

312-360

182

265.94

insol

1.59 - 1.65

9.2

@ 25 ºC

210 oc

2,3,7,8-TETRACHLO­RO-DIBENZO-p-DIOXIN
1746-01-6

colourless needles

305-306

322

@ 25 ºC

1,2,3-TRICHLORO­BENZENE
87-61-6

platelets from alcohol; white crystals

221

52.6

181.46

insol

1.69

6.26

@ 40 ºC

1127 cc

1,2,4-TRICHLORO­BENZENE
120-82-1

colourless liquid; rhombic crystals

214

17

181.46

insol

1.5

6.26

@ 25 °C

2.5 ll
6.6 ul

105

571

1,3,5-TRICHLORO­BENZENE
108-70-3

white crystals; long needles

208

63.5

181.45

insol

6.26

@ 78 °C

> 110

TRICHLORONAPH­THALENE
1321-65-9

colourless to pale yellow solid

304-354

92.78

231.5

insol

1.58

8.0

<133 Pa

200 oc

 

Back

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

BENZAL CHLORIDE
98-87-3

On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming toxic fumes of chlorinated compounds • Reacts violently with strong oxidants or metals • On contact with air it emits corrosive fumes (hydrogen chloride)

6.1

BENZATHONIUM CHLORIDE
121-54-0

On combustion, forms toxic and irritating gases (hydrogen chloride, nitrogen and carbon oxides) • Gives off toxic fumes in a fire

BENZENE CHLORIDE
108-90-7

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance decomposes on heating, on burning and on contact with hot surfaces, producing corrosive and toxic fumes • Reacts with strong oxidants • Reacts violently with chlorates, dimethylsulfoxide and alkali metals causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks rubber

3

BENZOYL CHLORIDE
98-88-4

The vapour is heavier than air

On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming highly toxic and corrosive gases (phosgene and HCl) • The substance decomposes violently on heating or on contact with alkalis, amines, other basic compounds, and DMSO, causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts violently with strong oxidants • Reacts with water or steam producing heat, and toxic and corrosive fumes • Attacks many metals forming flammable hydrogen gas, also on contact with metal salts, alcohols, amines and strong bases

8

BENZYL BROMIDE
100-39-0

6.1/ 8

BENZYL CHLORIDE
100-44-7

The substance will polymerize under the influence of all common metals except nickel and lead, with evolution of corrosive fumes (hydrogen chloride), with fire or explosion hazard • On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive fumes (hydrogen chloride) • Reacts vigorously with strong oxidants • Reacts with water, producing corrosive fumes (hydrogen chloride) • Attacks many metals in presence of water

6.1/ 8

BENZYL CHLOROFORMATE
501-53-1

8

BROMOBENZENE
108-86-1

3

CHLORINATED CAMPHENE
8001-35-2

The substance decomposes on heating,on burning and/or under influence of alkali, strong sunlight, and catalysts like iron producing toxic fumes • Attacks iron • Incompatible with strongly alkaline pesticides

CHLOROBENZILATE
510-15-6

6.1

5-CHLORO-o-TOLUIDINE
95-79-4

6.1

o-CHLOROTOLUENE
95-49-8

3

p-DICHLOROBENZENE
106-46-7

The vapour is heavier than air

On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive fumes including phosgene, hydrogen chloride • The substance decomposes on contact with acids or acid fumes producing highly toxic fumes • Reacts with strong oxidants, strong reducing agents and alkali metals causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks some forms of plastic, rubber, coatings

HEXACHLOROBENZENE
118-74-1

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes • Reacts violently with dimethyl formamide above 65°C

6.1

HEXACHLOROPHENE
70-30-4

6.1

OCTACHLORONAPHTHALENE
2234-13-1

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (chlorine)

PENTACHLOROBENZENE
608-93-5

The substance decomposes on heating or on contact with acids or acids fumes producing toxic, irritating fumes (hydrogen chloride)

4.1

PENTACHLORONAPHTALENE
1321-64-8

On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming toxic fumes of chlorine

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254)
11097-69-1

The substance decomposes in a fire producing irritating and toxic gases

9

1,2,4,5-TETRACHLOROBENZENE
95-94-3

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

On combustion, forms phosgene • The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride and phosgene • acts violently with strong base, strong oxidants causing explosion hazard • n heated with sodium hydroxide and solvent (methanol or ethylene glycol) to prepare trichlorophenol, serious explosions have occurred

3

1,2,3-TRICHLOROBENZENE
87-61-6

6.1

1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE
120-82-1

The substance decomposes on heating or on burning, producing toxic and irritating fumes (phosgene, chlorine and hydrogen chloride) • Reacts violently with oxidants, acids, and acid fumes

6.1

1,3,5-TRICHLOROBENZENE
108-70-3

6.1

TRICHLOROMETHYLBENZENE
98-07-7

8

TRICHLORONAPHTHALENE
1321-65-9

The substance decomposes on heating and on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride, phosgene) • Reacts with strong oxidants ing fire and explosion hazard

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Page 7 of 122

" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Education and Training Services
Emergency and Security Services
Entertainment and the Arts
Arts and Crafts
Performing and Media Arts
Entertainment
Entertainment and the Arts Resources
Health Care Facilities and Services
Hotels and Restaurants
Office and Retail Trades
Personal and Community Services
Public and Government Services
Transport Industry and Warehousing
Part XVIII. Guides

Entertainment and the Arts References

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. 1991. Protective equipment. In Athletic Training and Sports Medicine. Park Ridge, IL: APOS.

Arheim, DD. 1986. Dance Injuries: Their Prevention and Care. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co.

Armstrong, RA, P Neill, and R Mossop. 1988. Asthma induced by ivory dust: A new occupational cause. Thorax 43(9):737-738.

Axelsson, A and F Lindgren. 1981. Hearing in classical musicians. Acta Oto-Larynogologica 92 Suppl. 377:3-74.

Babin, A 1996. Orchestra pit sound level measurements in Broadway shows. Presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association. New York, 20 November.

Baker, EL, WA Peterson, JL Holtz, C Coleman, and PJ Landrigan. 1979. Subacute cadmium intoxication in jewellery workers: an evaluation of diagnostic procedures. Arch Environ Health 34:173-177.

Balafrej, A, J Bellakhdar, M El Haitem, and H Khadri. 1984. Paralysis due to glue in young apprentice shoemakers in the medina of Fez. Rev Pediatrie 20(1):43-47.

Ballesteros, M, CMA Zuniga, and OA Cardenas. 1983. Lead concentrations in the blood of children from pottery-making families exposed to lead salts in a Mexican village. B Pan Am Health Organ 17(1):35-41.

Bastian, RW. 1993. Benign mucosal and saccular disorders; benign laryngeal tumors. In Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, edited by CW Cumming. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co.

—. 1996. Vocal fold microsurgery in singers. Journal of Voice 10(4):389-404

Bastian, R, A Keidar, and K Verdolini-Marston. 1990. Simple vocal tasks for detecting vocal fold swelling. Journal of Voice 4(2):172-183.

Bowling, A. 1989. Injuries to dancers: Prevalence, treatment and perception of causes. British Medical Journal 6675:731-734.

Bruno, PJ, WN Scott, and G Huie. 1995. Basketball. In The Team Physicians’s Handbook, edited by MB Mellion, WM Walsh and GL Shelton. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Yearbook.

Burr, GA, TJ Van Gilder, DB Trout, TG Wilcox, and R Friscoll. 1994. Health Hazard Evaluation Report: Actors’ Equity Association/The League of American Theaters and Producers, Inc. Doc. HETA 90-355-2449. Cincinnati, OH: US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Calabrese, LH, DT Kirkendal, and M Floyd. 1983. Menstrual abnormalities, nutritional patterns and body composition in female classical ballet dancers. Phys Sports Med 11:86-98.

Cardullo, AC, AM Ruszkowski, and VA DeLeo. 1989. Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from sensitivity to citrus peel, geriniol, and citral. J Am Acad Dermatol 21(2):395-397.

Carlson, T. 1989. Lights! Camera! Tragedy. TV Guide (26 August):8-11.

Chasin, M and JP Chong. 1992. A clinically efficient hearing protection program for musicians. Med Prob Perform Artists 7(2):40-43.

—. 1995. Four environmental techniques to reduce the effect of music exposure on hearing. Med Prob Perform Artists 10(2):66-69.

Chaterjee, M. 1990. Ready-made garment workers in Ahmedabad. B Occup Health Safety 19:2-5.

Clare, PR. 1990. Football. In The Team Physicians’s Handbook, edited by MB Mellion, WM Walsh, and GL Shelton. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co.

Cornell, C. 1988. Potters, lead and health—Occupational safety in a Mexican village (meeting abstract). Abstr Pap Am Chem S 196:14.

Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association. 1983. Brain injury in boxing. JAMA 249:254-257.

Das, PK, KP Shukla, and FG Ory. 1992. An occupational health programme for adults and children in the carpet weaving industry, Mirzapur, India: A case study in the informal sector. Soc Sci Med 35(10):1293-1302.

Delacoste, F and P Alexander. 1987. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press.

Depue, RH and BT Kagey. 1985. A proportionate mortality study of the acting profession. Am J Ind Med 8:57-66.

Dominguez, R, JR DeJuanes Paardo, M Garcia Padros, and F Rodriguez Artalejo. 1987. Antitetanic vaccination in a high-risk population. Med Segur Trab 34:50-56.

Driscoll, RJ, WJ Mulligan, D Schultz, and A Candelaria. 1988. Malignant mesothelioma: a cluster in a Native American population. New Engl J Med 318:1437-1438.

Estébanez, P, K Fitch, and Nájera 1993. HIV and female sex workers. Bull WHO 71(3/4):397-412.

Evans, RW, RI Evans, S Carjaval, and S Perry. 1996. A survey of injuries among Broadway performers. Am J Public Health 86:77-80.

Feder, RJ. 1984. The professional voice and airline flight. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 92(3):251-254.

Feldman, R and T Sedman. 1975. Hobbyists working with lead. New Engl J Med 292:929.

Fishbein, M. 1988. Medical problems among ICSOM musicians. Med Prob Perform Artists 3:1-14.

Fisher, AA. 1976. “Blackjack disease” and other chromate puzzles. Cutis 18(1):21-22.

Frye, HJH. 1986. Incidence of overuse syndrome in the symphony orchestra. Med Prob Perform Artists 1:51-55.

Garrick, JM. 1977. The frequency of injury, mechanism of injury and epidemiology of ankle sprains. Am J Sports Med 5:241-242.

Griffin, R, KD Peterson, J Halseth, and B Reynolds. 1989. Radiographic study of elbow injuries in professional rodeo cowboys. Phys Sports Med 17:85-96.

Hamilton, LH and WG Hamilton. 1991. Classical ballet: Balancing the costs of artistry and athleticism. Med Prob Perform Artists 6:39-44.

Hamilton, WG. 1988. Foot and ankle injuries in dancers. In Sports Clinics of North America, edited by L Yokum. Philadelphia, PA: Williams and Wilkins.

Hardaker, WTJ. 1987. Medical considerations in dance training for children. Am Fam Phys 35(5):93-99.

Henao, S. 1994. Health Conditions of Latin American Workers. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Huie, G and EB Hershman. 1994. The team clinician’s bag. Am Acad Phys Asst 7:403-405.

Huie, G and WN Scott. 1995. Assessment of ankle sprains in athletes. Phys Assist J 19(10):23-24.

Kipen, HM and Y Lerman. 1986. Respiratory abnormalities among photographic developers: A report of 3 cases. Am J Ind Med 9:341-347.

Knishkowy, B and EL Baker. 1986. Transmission of occupational disease to family contacts. Am J Ind Med 9:543-550.

Koplan, JP, AV Wells, HJP Diggory, EL Baker, and J Liddle. 1977. Lead absorption in a community of potters in Barbados. Int J Epidemiol 6:225-229.

Malhotra, HL. 1984. Fire safety in assembly buildings. Fire Safety J 7(3):285-291.

Maloy, E. 1978. Projection booth safety: New findings and new dangers. Int Assoc Electr Inspect News 50(4):20-21.

McCann, M. 1989. 5 dead in movie heliocopter crash. Art Hazards News 12:1.

—. 1991. Lights! Camera! Safety! A Health and Safety Manual for Motion Picture and Television Production. New York: Center for Safety in the Arts.

—. 1992a. Artist Beware. New York: Lyons and Burford.

—. 1992b. Art Safety Procedures: A Health and Safety Manual for Art Schools and Art Departments. New York: Center for Safety in the Arts.

—. 1996. Hazards in cottage industries in developing countries. Am J Ind Med 30:125-129.

McCann, M, N Hall, R Klarnet, and PA Peltz. 1986. Reproductive hazards in the arts and crafts. Presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health Conference on Reproductive Hazards in the Environment and Workplace, Bethesda, MD, 26 April.

Miller, AB, DT Silverman, and A Blair. 1986. Cancer risk among artistic painters. Am J Ind Med 9:281-287.

MMWR. 1982. Chromium sensitization in an artist’s workshop. Morb Mort Weekly Rep 31:111.

—. 1996. Bull riding-related brain and spinal cord injuries—Louisiana, 1994-1995. Morb and Mort Weekly Rep 45:3-5.

Monk, TH. 1994. Circadian rhythms in subjective activation, mood, and performance efficiency. In Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd edition, edited by M. Kryger and WC. Roth. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1991. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Workplace: NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 54. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Norris, RN. 1990. Physical disorders of visual artists. Art Hazards News 13(2):1.

Nubé, J. 1995. Beta Blockers and Performing Musicians. Doctoral thesis. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.

O’Donoghue, DH. 1950. Surgical treatment of fresh injuries to major ligaments of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg 32:721-738.

Olkinuora, M. 1984. Alcoholism and occupation. Scand J Work Environ Health 10(6):511-515.

—. 1976. Injuries to the knee. In Treatment of Injuries to Athletes, edited by DH O’Donoghue. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

Pan American Health Organization, (PAHO). 1994. Health Conditions in the Americas. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: PAHO.

Pheterson, G. 1989. The Vindication of the Rights of Whores. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.

Prockup, L. 1978. Neuropathy in an artist. Hosp Pract (November):89.

Qualley, CA. 1986. Safety in the Artroom. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications.

Ramakrishna, RS, P Muthuthamby, RR Brooks, and DE Ryan. 1982. Blood lead levels in Sri Lankan families recovering gold and silver from jewellers’ waste. Arch Environ Health 37(2):118-120.

Ramazzini, B. 1713. De morbis artificum (Diseases of Workers). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Rastogi, SK, BN Gupta, H Chandra, N Mathur, PN Mahendra, and T Husain. 1991. A study of the prevalence of respiratory morbidity among agate workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63(1):21-26.

Rossol, M. 1994. The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press.

Sachare, A.(ed.). 1994a. Rule #2. Section IIC. In The Official NBA Basketball Encyclopedia. New York: Villard Books.

—. 1994b. Basic Principle P: Guidelines for infection control. In The Official NBA Basketball Encyclopedia. New York: Villard Books.

Sammarco, GJ. 1982. The foot and ankle in classical ballet and modern dance. In Disorders of the Foot, edited by MH Jahss. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

Sataloff, RT. 1991. Professional Voice: The Science and Art of Clinical Care. New York: Raven Press.

—. 1995. Medications and their effect on the voice. Journal of Singing 52(1):47-52.

—. 1996. Pollution: Consequences for singers. Journal of Singing 52(3):59-64.

Schall, EL, CH Powell, GA Gellin, and MM Key. 1969. Hazards to go-go dancers to exposures to “black” light from fluorescent bulbs. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 30:413-416.

Schnitt, JM and D Schnitt. 1987. Psychological aspects of dance. In The Science of Dance Training, edited by P Clarkson and M Skrinar. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Press.

Seals, J. 1987. Dance surfaces. In Dance Medicine: A Comprehensive Guide, edited by A Ryan and RE Stephens. Chicago, IL: Pluribus Press.

Sofue, I, Y Yamamura, K Ando, M Iida, and T Takayanagi. 1968. N-hexane polyneuropathy. Clin Neurol 8:393-403.

Stewart, R and C Hake. 1976. Paint remover hazard. JAMA 235:398.

Tan, TC, HC Tsang, and LL Wong. 1990. Noise surveys in discotheques in Hong Kong. Ind Health 28(1):37-40.

Teitz, C, RM Harrington, and H Wiley. 1985. Pressure on the foot in point shoes. Foot Ankle 5:216-221.

VanderGriend, RA, FH Savoie, and JL Hughes. 1991. Fracture of the ankle. In Rockwood and Green’s Fractures in Adults, edited by CA Rockwood, DP Green, and RW Bucholz. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Co.

Warren, M, J Brooks-Gunn, and L Hamilton. 1986. Scoliosis and fracture in young ballet dancers: Relationship to delayed menarcheal age and amenorrhea. New Engl J Med 314:1338-1353.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1976. Meeting on Organization of Health Care in Small Industries. Geneva: WHO.

Zeitels, S. 1995. Premalignant epithelium and microinvasive cancer of the vocal fold: the evolution of phonomicrosurgical management. Laryngoscope 105(3):1-51.