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Sanitarian

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Synonyms: Sanitary inspector; sanitation inspector; sanitation supervisor; environmental technician; pollution-control technician (DOT). Also: public-health inspector; environmental-health inspector; environmental-quality inspector; environmental technician/engineering aid; registered/certified sanitarian

Job profile

Definition and/or description

DEF15

Plans, develops and executes environmental health programme; organizes and conducts training programme in environmental health practices for schools and other groups; determines and sets health and sanitation standards and enforces regulations concerned with food processing and serving, collection and disposal of solid wastes, sewage treatment and disposal, plumbing, vector control, recreational areas, hospitals and other institutions, noise, ventilation, air pollution, radiation and other areas; confers with government, community, industrial, civil defence and private organizations to interpret and promote environmental health programmes; collaborates with other health personnel in epidemiological investigations and control. Advises civic and other officials in development of environmental health laws and regulations (DOT).

Related and specific occupations

RELOCC6

Sanitary engineer; public-health engineer; environmental engineer; food and drug inspector; exterminator; mosquito sprayer (DOT).

Tasks

TASK12

Analysing; assembling and installing; burning (of garbage, etc.); calculating; catching (insects, rodents, etc.); checking; constructing; controlling; designing; determining (quantities, treatment techniques, etc.); developing; digging; disinfecting; disposing; disseminating (information); distributing (information or training material); driving; educating; enforcing; estimating (quantities); eradicating (pests); evaluating; examining; executing; exterminating; guiding; handling; improving (control techniques, etc.); inspecting; investigating; measuring; operating; planning; preventing; questioning; reporting; sampl- ing; sanitizing; spraying; supervising; surveying; testing; transferring; warning; witnessing.

Auxiliary tasks

Administering; advising; answering; applying; assisting; collaborating; collecting; compiling; computing; coordinating; discussing; filing; fixing; initiating; instructing; interpreting; lecturing; negotiating; organizing; participating (in committees, programmes, etc.); promoting; reviewing; scheduling; standardizing; teaching; training; writing.

Hazards

Accident hazards

ACCHA1

– Slips, trips and falls from ladders, stairs, elevated platforms, etc., during field visits of plants and throughout inspection operations;

– Falls into open pits and manholes while inspecting water and sewage systems;

– Acute poisoning by gases (e.g., sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide) during inspection and cleaning of sewage systems;

– Acute poisoning resulting from operation and handling of drinking water and swimming-pool chlorination and bromination equipment and containers;

– Acute poisoning caused by use of various pesticides (see Appendix) throughout pest control/extermination operations;

– Burns resulting from garbage-burning operations and from operating incinerators;

– Relatively high risk of being involved in road accidents as a result of extensive and frequent driving on badly kept roads and off-roads;

– Electrical shock resulting from work with mechanized and electrical field equipment;

– Fires and explosions caused by flammable and explosive substances (e.g., solvents, gasoline, etc.).

Physical hazards

PHYSIC1

– Exposure to excessive noise (relevant for sanitarians engaged in industrial hygiene, heating and ventilation systems and in inspection of “noisy” industries such as the heavy industries, the textile industry and printing);

– Exposure to ionizing radiation (relevant for sanitarians engaged in control and supervision of radioisotope usage, x-ray equipment and radioactive wastes);

– Exposure to non-ionizing radiation (e.g., in water sterilization by UV);

– Exposure to extreme climatic conditions while working in the field.

Chemical hazards

CHEMHA4

– Chronic poisoning as a result of exposure to various toxic materials, such as pesticides (including insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, algicides, nematocides, etc.), their vapours and aerosols throughout extermination operations or disposal of containers with toxic pesticide residues;

– Contact with strong oxidants, especially chlorine compounds used for disinfection of drinking water and swimming pools;

– Toxic gases present in sewage systems or in industrial plants with inadequate ventilation systems;

– Dermatites and eczemas resulting from contact with various oils and solvents used for pest control, garbage- burning operations or other chemicals commonly used in sanitary laboratories.

Biological hazards

BIOHAZ4

– Exposure to various micro-organisms while working with liquid or solid wastes;

– Bites and stings by various insects (e.g., bees, flies, fleas, ticks, mites, mosquitoes and wasps), snakes, scorpions, rodents, etc., during field and laboratory work;

– Risk of contracting infectious diseases while working in hospitals.

Ergonomic and social factors

ERGO3

– Physical and/or verbal assault while carrying out sanitary inspections of buildings, businesses, shops, etc.

– Attempts of those subjected to inspection to file unwarranted complaints which result in psychological stress, nervousness, etc.

Addendum

References

Freedman, B. 1977. Sanitarian’s Handbook, 4th edition. New Orleans, LA: Peerless Publishing Co.

Last, JM and RB Wallace (eds.). 1992. Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 13th edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Tchobanoglous, G and FL Burton. 1991. Metcalf & Eddy Wastewater Engineering—Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Appendix

Principal chemicals to which sanitarians may be exposed:

– Acids

– Activated carbon

– Alcohols

– Aldrin

– Allethrin

– ANTU

– Asbestos

– Benzene hexachloride

– Bichloride of mercury

– Borax

– Boric acid

– Bromine

– Cadaverine

– Calcium cyanide

– Calcium hypochlorite

– Carbamates

– Carbolic acid

– Carbon monoxide

– Carbon disulphide

– Chloramines

– Chlordane

– Chlorinated hydrocarbons

– Chlorine

– Chlorine dioxide

– Copper sulfate

– Cresol

– Crude oil

– Cyanides

– DDD (TDE)

– DDT

– Detergents

– Diatomaceous earth

– Diazinon

– Dieldrin

– Diesel oil

– Dioxin

– Dipterex

– Disinfectants

– Fluorides

– Fluorine

– Formaldehyde

– Fuel oils

– Fumigants

– Fungicides

– Heptachlor

– Herbicides

– Hexametaphosphate

– Hydrocyanic acid

– Hydrofluoric acid

– Hydrogen sulphide

– Indol

– Iodine

– Kerosene

– Larvicides

– Lime

– Lindane

– Malathion

– Methoxychlor

– Mineral acids

– Nitrates

– Nitric acid

– Organic acids

– Organic phosphates (polyphosphates)

– Orthotolidine

– Ozone

– Parathion

– Pesticides

– Phenol

– Pine oil

– Pival

– Potassium permanganate

– Pyrethrum

– Quaternary ammonium compounds

– Rodenticides

– Skatole

– Soaps

– Sulphur dioxide

– Sulphuric acid

– Warfarin

– Xylene

– Zeolites

 

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Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides
Guide to Occupations
Guide to Chemicals
Guide to Units and Abbreviations

Guide to Occupations References

Brandt, AD. 1946. Industrial Health Engineering. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Commission of the European Communities (CEC). 1991-93. International Chemical Safety Cards. 10 vols. Luxembourg: CEC.

—. 1993. Compiler’s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards (First Revision). Luxembourg: CEC International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/ILO/WHO).

Donagi, AE et al. 1983. Potential Hazards in Various Occupations, a Preliminary List [card file]. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University School of Medicine, Research Institute of Environmental Health.

Donagi, AE (ed.). 1993. A Guide to Health and Safety Hazards in Various Occupations: The Health System. 2 vols. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene.

Haddon, W, EA Suchman, and D Klein. 1964. Accident Research: Methods and Approaches. New York: Harpers and Row.

International Labour Organization (ILO). 1978. International Standard Classification of Occupations, revised edition. Geneva: ILO.

—. 1990. International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO-88. Geneva: ILO.

International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS). 1995. International Safety Datasheets on Occupations. Steering Committee meeting, 9-10 March. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1977. Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-181. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Stellman, JM and SM Daum. 1973. Work Is Dangerous to Your Health. New York: Vintage Books.

United Nations. 1971. Indexes to the International Standard Classification of All Economic Activities. UN Publication No. WW.71.XVII, 8. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

US Department of Labor (DOL). 1991. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th (revised) edition. Washington, DC: DOL.

—. 1991. The Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs. Washington, DC: DOL.